By … Social capital relates to the formal and informal social resources that people draw upon in pursuit of their livelihoods. This category of influences comes under a variety of different headings. membership of formal groups or organisations, informal social interactions in and outside the workplace, relationships of reciprocity, including gift exchange and mutual assistance. Because cultures co-evolve with their changing environments, sustaining livelihoods has … It seeks to understand the various dimensions of a person's livelihood; the strategies and objectives pursued, and associated opportunities and constraints. The ultimate objective of these investment strategies is to improve long-term livelihood security and the quality of life of more generally. Can you think of some examples of such trade-offs? Livelihood and rural development 1. We have also added an additional feedback arrow to Ellis' original diagram to emphasise the (positive or negative) effects that livelihood strategies and outcomes can have on livelihood assets. DFID's SL framework lists five 'categories' of livelihood outcomes: (1) more income, (2) increased well-being, (3) reduced vulnerability, (4) improved food security, (5) more sustainable use of the natural resource base. First, about half of the country’s workforce is primarily employed in agriculture, typically an environment with relatively high income volatility and uncertainty. Exposure to change can have a direct influence on livelihoods by weakening them, strengthening them, or forcing a new direction. To shed light on possible solutions, this study employs the conceptual framework of sustainable livelihood and the multinomial logit model. I believe that the skills dimension of livelihood security must take into account the fact that skilling is not a one-time process; rather, it is a life-cycle process, which must engage with large numbers of people over the 30 or 40 years of their working life. This framework emphasizes how people use a range of assets (natural, physical, social, human, and financial capitals)—sometimes conceptualized in the literature as “strengths” (Moser et al. Livelihood in Iran’s rural areas, as elsewhere in the developing world, is highly intertwined with the harvesting of environmental resources, leading to severe environmental degradation. A holistic job creation policy has to address the many and varied factors that increase the costs of doing business and, correspondingly, weaken competitiveness. components of the framework are described in more detail in the subsequent sheets in this section. NUSAF 2 (WFP) consists of three main components: i) a Public Works Programme, ii) a Household Income Support Programme, and iii) institutional development. Such interactions are important in the increasing attention given by policy-makers to interactions between 'social protection' (social transfers and safety nets) and development. We already have a safety net in place for rural workers with the explicit objective of livelihood security in the form of the NREGS. Guidance for the Brookings community and the public on our response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) », Learn more from Brookings scholars about the global response to coronavirus (COVID-19) ». These facts led us to adopt the livelihood conceptual framework, which was implemented using a rural household database1, in ... Each capital comprises various components that are difficult to measure and aggregate. Study the diagram and see whether you can see possible relationships between the different variables listed in columns A to F. In discussing this we start at the centre, columns D and E, then move to the right (column F) before coming back to columns A to C. The livelihood strategies and activities of poor people are often complex and diverse. Note also that, whilst improved access to livelihood assets and the outcome of greater livelihood security (especially higher incomes, more stable incomes, and reduced risk) are usually important objectives in rural livelihood strategies, environmental sustainability may or may not be an objective. • Country Programming Framework (CPF): Regarding the FAO and the Senegalese government’s collaboration priorities for the 2013-2017 period (Country Programming Framework), the project will support the priority area 1, namely by improving the productivity and competitivity of agricultural products through Output 1. Note also that trends in a community or country may be made up increasing or decreasing shocks affecting individual people or livelihoods (for example increasing morbidity and mortality from HIV/AIDS may be a trend in a country but the onset of HIV/AIDS is a shock to those directly affected by it). Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. In structure dimension, the components of disasters defensive capacities, capacities for access to livelihood capital, capacities for livelihood option and transformation, and livelihood outcome capacities is entrenched in the SITS framework and takes a holistic approach to incorporating disaster risk reduction into livelihood necessities, livelihood processes, and livelihood activities work. Livelihood outcomes. LECTURE 3: LIVELIHOOD AND RURAL DIVERSIFICATION October 28, 2015 2. For rural livelihoods the ecological, economic (markets), and socio-cultural environments are of particular importance. 2.6 The Sustainable Rural Livelihoods Framework (1998) 9 2.7 Natural Resources Department’s SLA initiative 10 2.8 Inter-agency working 12 2.9 Late 1990s research connecting the macro and micro 12 2.10 The 2000 White Paper 13 3 The Key Research/Policy/Practice Interactions … These fluctuations are often dramatic and can profoundly affect livelihood security (Devereux et al 2011) People's livelihood strategies are designed, where possible, to reduce seasonal income fluctuations and the associated vulnerability. Kurunpa (spirituality, soul, psyche) 1. The objective and Importance of sustainable livelihood framework is to increase people control of their natural resources, build reliable and fair access to food. 2Lanjouw and Sharif, (2002) have also indicated that in rural India, much of the … The livelihood assets, Livelihood Analysis Framework 6 5. FIGURE 6: Use of livelihood capitals 35 BOXES BOX 1: Six principles for shock measurement 4 BOX 2: Operationalizing resilience with Oxfam 10 BOX 3: RIMA-II 12 BOX 4: FSIN Technical Working Group (TWG) Resilience Measurement Integrated Framework 16 BOX 5: … overall understanding of livelihoods, and a range of methods for tackling the key components of the SL framework. Tjikurrpa (belief system, philosophy, lore) 1. The Project elements in LFA are recorded and presented according to a matrix format. The framework shows how, in different contexts, sustainable livelihoods are achieved through access to a range of livelihood resources (natural, economic, human and social capitals) which are combined in the pursuit of different livelihood strategies (agricultural intensification or extensification, livelihood diversification and migration). A formal safety net is, therefore, the other side of the coin as we move ahead with the labour market reform agenda. Principal of livelihood • People-centred: beginning by understanding peoples’ priorities and livelihood strategies. As with any abstract model, the livelihoods framework is not entirely free of ambiguity, especially in relation to what is put in the various 'boxes' and the relationship the boxes have with each other. The sustainable livelihoods framework in 3.1.1 is an effort to conceptualise livelihoods in a holistic way, capturing the many complexities of livelihoods, and the constraints and opportunities that they are subjected to. For example, better access to environmental capital may improve access to financial capital and physical capital; and greater income stability and lower risk may lead to higher aggregate income in the long term by reducing the probability of having to sell off productive assets in times of crisis, or by enhancing the returns to individual assets. Let me conclude by re-emphasizing the proposition that livelihood security must be given a central place in the overall strategy for economic development. The third component of the livelihood security framework is a safety net. framework for sustainable livelihood practices based on desert social, cultural, institutional and ecological principles. and examines its potential as a framework to guide policy and management in the inshore fisheries of northern Europe. We need to shift large numbers of people out of agriculture into relatively more stable employment situations, we need to rapidly increase the share of people employed in the organized sector and we need to give people who are self-employed at tiny scales opportunities to work in larger and less risky organizations. livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (stores, resources, claims and access) and activities required for a means of living: a livelihood is sustainable which can cope with and recover from stress and shocks, maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets, and provide sustainable livelihood opportunities for the next generation; and For India, where this goal seems so distant, it is an economic, social and political imperative. Sample Size & Criteria for Sample Selection 8 9. A livelihood framework is a tool that can be used to improve our understanding of the multiple components and processes that make up livelihood – particularly the livelihood of the poor. Livelihood outcomes or goals Better access to assets is a desirable outcome of any livelihood strategy. In the livelihoods framework, assets are conventionally divided into the following. The rapid expansion of appropriately skilled people was, and remains, a key policy objective. In this case development is the improvement of livelihood sustainability, perhaps by making capital less vulnerable or by enhancing the contributions that some capitals can make or even by improving the institutional context. An economy whose competitive strength is based on the low cost of labour will inevitably find this strength being eroded if the employer is asked to pay the wage plus the entire cost of the safety net. interwoven into each of the components of the sustainable livelihoods framework, and in fact culture is a context in which livelihoods exist. The paper proposes that livelihood strategies that include diversification and risk-spreading behaviour have been common features of inshore fishing in Europe, just as they are in low-income countries in the tropics. The three components of livelihood security: jobs, skills and safety nets ASSOCHAM Livelihoods Security Summit Subir Gokarn Friday, November 7, 2014 On the whole, the more assets someone has the less vulnerable they are to various shocks and trends. governmental ideals); • economic (increased perceived needs, changes in. From a livelihood security perspective, re-skilling must become a critical component of the skills strategy. The principles and relationships described in this conceptual framework are by necessity general as the purpose here is to create a framework that is broadly applicable across contexts. The DFID has developed a ‘Sustainable Livelihood Framework’ (SLF) which is one of the most widely used livelihoods frameworks in development practice. The three components of security – jobs, skills and safety nets – need to be addressed simultaneously in order to achieve it meaningfully. 8-9) or 'policies, institutions and processes' (a more recent classification). Note that in the 'shocks' box one might also add prices, since these can also change fairly suddenly. For many years now, we have been both aspiring to create momentum in manufacturing employment and despairing about our inability to do so. 2.3 Development of Sampling Framework ... livelihood component although community physical infrastructure component of the programme is strongly complimenting LEP component. Livelihood Field Officers (2) OVERALL MISSION. Also bear in mind that income in the livelihood security box does not just refer to monetary income but also to incomes in kind, such as the food produced by smallholder farmers for home consumption. social capital, financial/economic capital, physical capital, activities, and livelihood strategies. In relation to livelihood security, take particular note of the distinction between income level, income stability (or regularity), and degrees of risk. In the framework presented here, the outcomes of livelihood strategies are divided between the effects on livelihood security and the effects on environmental sustainability. In this report, the framework currently used by DFID is used as a basi s for analysis5. SWOT and BEEM Analysis of Livelihood System 37 11. In other words, we assumed that a household who farms and raises animals is less vulnerable than a household who only farms. Let me briefly lay out the key issues in each of these. social capital, financial/economic capital, physical capital, activities, and livelihood strategies. Over the longer term, the variables in the 'livelihood security' box, the 'environmental sustainability' box, and the 'livelihood assets' box can act positively on each other, providing that appropriate livelihood strategies are adopted. 2.2.1 A framework for micro policy analysis of rural livelihoods. In this framework, governments and humanitarian actors all agree that over the next 12/18 months the socio-economic response will be one of one critical components of the COVID- 19 response. Livelihood outcomes Livelihood outcomes are the achievements of livelihood strategies. It is exclusively funded by the government, which clearly imposes limits on its scale. Policies, institutions and processes 4. Of course, this is not the complete answer. Further, we must keep in mind that the thrust of skilling programmes, quite legitimately of course, is on job market entrants – young adults just leaving school or soon after. For this to happen, we have taken up Sustainable Livelihood (SL) framework (DFID, 1999) as a starting point, since this framework has been widely used in development practices. In this unit, we adopt the classification used by Ellis (2000), which is based on the following. Observations & Analysis 9 Human Capital 17 Social Capital Natural Capital Physical Capital Financial Capital Market Analysis 10 22 26 27 30 10. Analyses of these components are important to examine the rural livelihood status and sustainable livelihood improvement. Carney (ed)., 1998; Scoones, 1998). In any large organization, including government, there is always an emphasis on preparing people for upward mobility through training and orientation programmes. A revised definition of a sustainable livelihood, and a revised framework were then developed which were more appropriate for this research. 2001)—to devise livelihood strategies with the goal of achieving positive livelihood outcomes. For example, the category of 'social relations' overlaps to some extent with 'social capital' in the 'assets' box. I will return to this point later. Variables which were used for principal component analysis were selected under the guidance of Sustainable Livelihood Framework (SLF), that gives broad explanation of the livelihoods of the poor and reveals major factors that influence people’s livelihoods (source: DFID). A formal safety net is, therefore, the other side of the coin as we move ahead with the labour market reform agenda. For rural people, agriculture and other natural resource-based activities may play an important role, but rural households also diversify into other activities, some of which are linked to agriculture and the natural resources sector, others which are not. INTEGRATING CONCEPTS & COMPONENTS 30 BIBLIOGRAPHY 32 Livelihood & Food Security Conceptual Framework • 1 A central notion is that different households have differ-ent access livelihood assets, which the sustainable livelihood approach aims to expand. The objective of those wishing to promote sustainable livelihoods is to minimise trade-offs of the sort discussed above and to maximise complementarities. Seasonality refers to the fact that many rural livelihood strategies (especially in agriculture) result in seasonal fluctuations in income. Increasing capacity and efficiency in infrastructure sectors, reducing the burden of regulatory compliance and, very importantly, removing barriers to inter-state movement of goods through the implementation of a full-fledged Goods and Services Tax (GST) will all contribute to manufacturing competitiveness through cost efficiencies and the full realization of scale economies. Effectively, the employer is being asked to provide livelihood security to the worker regardless of business conditions. In 2.2.1 you will find one adapted from Ellis (2000). You may encounter, 'transforming structures and processes' (Carney 1998 pp. People develop these social resources by investing time, effort and other resources in. GENERAL OBJECTIVE The Food Security and Livelihood Project Manager (FSL PM) is responsible for the management and implementation of Food Security and Livelihood interventions in North Base and works under the supervision of … Ngura (country) 2. We are not a society that has put much stock on continuing education or re-skilling, but policymakers must start thinking about it very seriously. Finally, it is worth noting that participation is central to the livelihoods approach. The need for a safety net is unquestionable. What we must do is to find the most efficient way to finance it. They can increase access to information and reduce transactions costs. Earlier, I said that, while more flexible hire-and-fire rules will provide an incentive to employers to hire more workers under a formal contracting arrangement, it is not consistent with security. • Sheets 4.1–4.4 examine the process of livelihoods analysis and provide an introduction to a range of common tools. Key variables were identified and index values were calculated for … security. It should be fairly clear that all of the listed items can affect an individual's access to assets, although precisely how will obviously depend upon the situation being examined. Figure 1. Strategies may include subsistence production or production for the market, participation in labour markets or labouring in the home. A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (stores, resources, claims and access) and activities required for a means of living: a livelihood is sustainable which can cope with and recover from stress and shocks, maintain and enhance its capabilities and assets, and provide sustainable livelihood opportunities for the Farm variables within each capital were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis. 2.2 The Sustainable Livelihood Framework The sustainable livelihood framework was elaborated by several development institutes for the purpose of analyzing and developing the livelihoods of poor rural households. iii. Vulnerability context 2. We shall look more at these ideas in Section 3. Conventional economics does not have a social capital category and precisely what social capital consists of is open to debate. Thus while the conceptual framework may not explain all the cross-contextual variations, it … They are also something people invest in so as to increase future flows of income/consumption. Such investments may help to build trust and facilitate co-operation. framework which can serve as the basis for an analysis. All livelihood strategies depend upon access to assets of some kind or other, whether such access involves private ownership or other forms of access. These variables make important components of the livelihoods framework i.e. 1. Jobs may be created, but without adequate numbers of workers with appropriate skills, wage pressures will erode the competitiveness of businesses. On jobs, in terms of the objectives laid out earlier, the key challenge is to create as many jobs as possible in activities outside of agriculture. The sustainable livelihoods framework in 3.1.1 is an effort to conceptualise livelihoods in a holistic way, capturing the many complexities of livelihoods, and the constraints and opportunities that they are subjected to. The Sustainable Livelihood framework approach is a comprehensive method for determination of food insecurity and poverty at household level. For rural people, agriculture and other natural resource-based activities may play an important role, but rural households also diversify into other activities, some of which are linked to agriculture and the natural resources sector, others which are not. The basic problem with permanent employment is that it loads the entire cost of the safety net on to the employer. A livelihood is said to be sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks to maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets both now and in the future. • Sheets 4.5–4.6 provide more detail on rapid and participatory methods and sample surveys. One definition is presented in 2.2.2. are normally adaptive responses to changes in six. Again, have a look at the diagram that we introduced earlier, to see what is listed under these different headings. SLF The logical framework approach follows a hierarchical results oriented planning structure and methodology which focuses all project planning elements on the achievement of one project purpose. The livelihoods framework provides a tool for analysing people's livelihoods and the impact of specific threats or shocks on livelihood vulnerability. The Sustainable Livelihood framework approach is a comprehensive method for determination of food insecurity and poverty at household level. After seven years of an impactful partnership, as of September 11, 2020, Brookings India is now the Centre for Social and Economic Progress, an independent public policy institution based in India. ... assessing the contribution to livelihood sustainability made by existing activities. Second, over 90 per cent of the country’s workforce is employed informally, which means that they have not even basic protections, let alone livelihood security.

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