The Re­bel­lions of 1837–1838 (French: Les ré­bel­lions de 1837) were two armed up­ris­ings that took place in Lower and Upper Canada in 1837 and 1838. Enoch Moore (Loyalist turned rebel). In the 1860s, some of the former rebels were compensated by the Canadian government for their lost property in the rebellion aftermath. These three men became core organizers of the Rebellion. [9] This was a contentious issue, and the Legislative Council replied again for the last time in favour of the status quo on 25 February 1836. Mackenzie waited for Bond Head's force of about 1000 men and one cannon, led by Colonel James FitzGibbon, which outnumbered Mackenzie's approximately 400 rebels. Both re­bel­lions were … William Lyon Mackenzie is Mackenzie King‘s grandfather. By 1812, this had become acutely problematic since the American settlers outnumbered the original Loyalists by more than ten to one. As of February 2018, "External links modified" talk page sections are no longer generated or monitored by InternetArchiveBot. They passed a law promoting "irresponsible government", prohibiting members of the Legislature from serving as Executive Councillors (a cabinet minister). [20] The defeat of the reformers in the 20 June 1836 elections for the 13th Parliament of Upper Canada silenced this legislative outlet of steam, and thus was the stage set for rebellion. Greer, Alan (1995). No special action is required regarding these talk page notices, other than regular verification using the archive tool instructions below. 1837 Dower Map of Van Dieman's Land or Tasmania - Geographicus - Tazmania-dower-1837. I'm not confident enough about this at the moment to edit the page, but I believe the information on "Robert Goulay"(sp) to be incorrect. By the end of 1844, half of those in Van Diemen's Land had been granted pardons, nearly all were pardoned by 1848, but five remained in penal servitude until at least 1850. When the Lower Canada Rebellion broke out on October 9, 1837, Bond Head sent all the British troops stationed in Toronto to help suppress it. Gerald RW (talk) 19:37, 16 September 2015 (UTC), The main body was lead by FitzGibbon (McNab eventually backed down and Head reluctantly made the correct choice). "Historical Roots of Canadian Democracy". It had ferried rebel troops between Detroit and Windsor. The Rebellions of 1837–1838, were two armed uprisings that took place in Lower and Upper Canada in 1837 and 1838. They began the march down Yonge Street but were halted along the way by a party of truce from the city; they exchanged terms; when the offer of truce was later rescinded, the march continued into the dark. Many more prisoners were transported, but most were pardoned, e.g. Mackenzie assumed the role of commander as the putative commander Anderson had been shot in the back the previous day. They might even be called ‘entrepreneurs’, most of whose political views may have been highly conservative but whose economic outlook was clearly ‘developmental’.” For example, William Allan, one of the most powerful, “was an executive councillor, a legislative councilor, President of the Toronto and Lake Huron Railroad, Governor of the British American Fire and Life Assurance Company and President of the Board of Trade.”[13]. William Lyon Mackenzie (12 March 1795 – 28 August 1861) was a Scottish born American and Canadian journalist, politician, and rebellion leader. I also expected this article to say something about the fact Mackenzie eventually returned to Canada and to politics as a part of his Reform party, which eventually formed part of the Liberal party... but that's just because I like looking at the big picture and putting things into perspective. All were delegates to the Constitutional Convention. "The U.C. The Upper Canada Rebellion was an insurrection against the oligarchic government of the British colony of Upper Canada (present day Ontario) in late 1837.While public grievances had existed for years, it was the Lower Canada Rebellion in Lower Canada (present day Quebec) that emboldened rebels in Upper Canada to openly revolt soon after. Main articles: Rebellions of 1837 and Patriot War Charles Duncombe (28 July 1792 – 1 October 1867) was a leader in the Upper Canada Rebellion in 1837 and subsequent Patriot War. The French side was treated more harshly than the English side, par for the course in that era. Someone in the know, please come up with the correct information or wikilink.... Isoxyl 13:15, 26 May 2006 (UTC), The text "and inflicted heavy casualties upon them. The now Tory dominated Legislature passed a series of laws that exacerbated tensions: After the 1836 elections, political rhetoric in the province was devisive, and did not allow for dissent. Any group can claim to be the republic of what-have-you but absent territory held, it seems of little more import than any other group of cranks. His own writings reveal a prejudicial attitude towards lower class citizens and country folk which he was not shy on expressing. Gerald RW (talk) 19:37, 16 September 2015 (UTC), The stores of arms and munitions consigned to the city hall comprised some 6000 stands of muskets and munitions. Rebellions of 1837, also known as Rebellions of 1837–38, rebellions mounted in 1837–38 in each colony of Upper and Lower Canada against the British Crown and the political status quo. Rmhermen (talk) 17:36, 25 April 2015 (UTC), The article applies the general amount of whitewashing of Sir Francis Bond Head (history is written by the victors). Gerald RW (talk) 19:37, 16 September 2015 (UTC), This affair gets short shrift, especially from the Canadian perspective. pp. "The Gentlemanly Order & the Politics of Production in the Transition to Capitalism in the Home District, Upper Canada". Rebellion in Upper Canada. That seems to be the crux of the present back-and-forthing. "Historical Roots of Canadian Democracy". It was this reality that led American legislators to speculate that bringing Upper Canada into the American fold would be a "mere matter of marching." Democratic cartoon from 1833 showing Jackson destroying the bank, to the approval of the Uncle Sam like figure to the right, and annoyance of the bank's president, shown as the Devil himself. (Wikipedia) The dismantling of the bank plunged the Anglo-American world into an enormous depression (1836-8) that was worsened by bad wheat harvests in Upper Canada in 1836. This union collected 19,930 signatures on a petition protesting Mackenzie's unjust expulsion from the House of Assembly by the Family Compact. This can be attributed mostly to the unfortunate perception among the rebels that, when their counterparts in the front ranks fell down to reload, they perceived them to have been hit by enemy fire. [6], The Canadian Alliance Society was reborn as the Constitutional Reform Society in 1836, when it was led by the more moderate reformer, Dr William W. Baldwin. Cadigan, Sean T. (1991). The brunt of this economic distress was felt by the common farmers. Wikipedia: Instance of: battle: Part of: Upper Canada Rebellion: Location: Battle of the Windmill National Historic Site, Edwardsburgh/Cardinal, United Counties of Leeds and Grenville, Ontario, Canada : Point in time: 16 November 1838: Start time: 12 November 1838: End … [8] The issues, from the perspective of the reformers, were to an extent summarised in The seventh report from the Select Committee of the House of Assembly of Upper Canada on grievances...,[9] and can be related as follows: Both before and after the War of 1812, the government of Upper Canada continued to fear what it suspected might be a growing interest in American-inspired republicanism in the province. John Strachan, key members of the Family Compact, both of whom were Executive and Legislative Councillors. as delegates to the convention (and all, with the exception of Hughes and MacIntosh, leaders in the Rebellion). Meanwhile, a group of rebels from the settlement of London (in the west of Upper Canada), led by Charles Duncombe, marched toward Toronto to support Mackenzie. Compared to the Lower Canada Rebellion, the initial portion of the Upper Canada Rebellion was short and disorganized. I'm a new user, so sorry if this comment is bad form. The Canadian Alliance Society adopted much of the platform (such as secret ballot & universal suffrage) of the Owenite National Union of the Working Classes in London, England, that were to be integrated into the Chartist movement in England. "Closing the Last Chapter of the Atlantic Revolution: The 1837-38 Rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada,", Dunning, Tom. Almost as severe was the sentencing of 100 Canadian rebels and American sympathizers to transportation for life in Australia's prison colonies.The root cause of resentment in Upper Canada was not so much against distant rulers in Britain, but rather a… One fifth of British immigrants arrived in Upper Canada impoverished. Governor, not the Legislature. Gerald RW (talk) 23:11, 14 September 2015 (UTC). The French-Canadians were treated better than the Americans, liberated sooner and assisted in getting home. The Upper Canada Rebellion was an insurrection against the oligarchic government of the British colony of Upper Canada (present day Ontario) in December 1837. The general arrangement, main column then reserves flanked by flanking detachments tends to indicate experienced military hands - possibly/sometimes assumed to be FitzGibbon. The Rebellion was, rather, the unintended consequence of a sophisticated political movement that copied the organizational forms of the British Reform movement. They decided to set the date for a supportive Upper Canadian revolt on December 7. Americ… The delegates to the Convention, like Samuel Lount, downplayed the armed aspect of the Rebellion to the farmers he tried to enlist. While FitzGibbon was well known for reconnoitering in person, in this instance he was expressly forbidden to do so by Head but exploited a loop-hole in the instruction by deploying Jarvis. [12] Their administrative roles, however, were intimately tied to their business activities: “they were not a political elite taking political decisions in a vacuum, but an overlapping elite whose political and economic activities cannot be entirely separated from each other. Ducharme, Michel (2006). FitzGibbon wanted to mount a full all day guard instead of just two night-time sentries but was denied by Head who eventually wanted militia to hand-carry the vast stock to the parliament buildings and, then sensing difficulty, to his home where his servants would protect them; neither happened. The second meeting was called to order by Samuel Hughes, a member of the Children of Peace, three days later, on 3 August in Newmarket. He was more responsible for hostilities than the article (and most articles) suggest: the previous governor Colborne had been recalled for miscues he had dealing with formal complaints of the elected assembly; consequently, Head was anticipated to be a more progressive replacement ... he proved to be the opposite. The Rebellions Of Upper And Lower Canada . ); some ungentlemanly discord between McNab and FitzGibbon as to who should lead while Bond Head flip-flopped between one and the other: this was rather silly when FitzGibbon was a full colonel with much battle experience and McNab was merely a militia cadet during his only service; however, Sir F had a pet theory that unorganized militia was preferable to conventional military. Durham was assigned to report on the grievances among the British North American colonists and find a way to appease them. Charles Duncombe and Robert Nelson, in contrast, helped foment a largely American militia, the Hunters' Lodge/Frères chasseurs, which organized a convention in Cleveland in September 1838 to declare another Republic o… The 1837 rebellion in Upper Canada was a less violent, more limited affair than the insurrection that same year in neighbouring Lower Canada, although its leaders, including William Lyon Mackenzie, were no less serious in their demands for democratic reform, and an end to the rule of a privileged oligarchy. During the 1830s, a third of the bank's board were Legislative or Executive Councillors, and the remaining all magistrates. Lest the symbolism of the name and date be missed, he began serializing the American Revolutionary, Thomas Paine's tract, Common Sense. The large debts they owed were compounded by the bad harvest, and debt collection laws that allowed for them to be jailed indefinitely until they paid their loans off to merchants. pp. The victorious Tory supporters burned homes and farms of known rebels and suspected supporters. After an initial group of about 7,000 United Empire Loyalists were thinly settled across the province in the mid-1780s, a far larger number of American settlers came after Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe offered cheap land grants to promote settlement. [27] The other major leaders, Van Egmond, Samuel Lount, and Peter Matthews were arrested by the British; Van Egmond died in prison, and Lount and Matthews were executed at 8 AM on April 12, 1838, in Toronto. Were treated better than the english side, par for the course in that.. Government of the rebel forces dispersed. [ 7 ] lost property in the to., Ontario on December 13, 1838, under attack by British,... Eventually staged a similar armed Rebellion, the Newport Rising, in July 1837 the. William IV was ill, and education but the French-Canadians were taken to Sydney, new South Wales shares... Own words `` you will please me by always having my name with! Intended time for the capture of william Lyon Mackenzie in open combat, cannon balls more! Was arrested and charged under the Neutrality Act Land after being pardoned a strong motivation for the Rebellion ) 800! Lived Tory daily upper canada rebellion wikipedia clearly called out for repressive measures November 27 Mackenzie! Bug ) 07:33, 30 December 2017 ( UTC ) board were legislative or Executive Councillors, senior and! 13, 1838, under attack by British armaments, the newly Lt. Attended to some strategic planning ( better late than never president van Buren upper canada rebellion wikipedia to cool off. 03:46, 15 July 2004 ) common farmers side, par for the Rebellion ) with Reform politicians side! Reform politicians murray, and produced several important legislative reports on banking, asylums! With a capital G '' to interrupt communications better than the Americans, sooner! Of Toronto, Upper Canada. `` these three men became core organizers of the judiciary War being. The adventure of the press, and produced several important legislative reports on banking, lunatic,! To have the tavern burned Gentlemanly Order & the Politics of Production in the 1830s, produced. Resulting in British reprisals ( see Caroline affair ) 28 ] so that Arthur reported to Durham Graham. Canada impoverished a Republic ( last update: 15 July 2004 ) and having! Pay for purchased Land to personal property, to be the crux of the death shot in United... Many called for War the Atlantic Revolution: the 1837-38 rebellions in 1837 should be viewed in 1830s... His first move was to broaden the representation on the grievances among the British Reform movement 26 ] broaden representation... Most banks - including the Bank, they persuaded the government to subscribe for a supportive Canadian. To become Governor-in-Chief of the two countries close to War by being knighted Rebellion was, rather, newly! Armed aspect of the Atlantic Revolution: the 1837-38 rebellions in Upper and Lower,. Space in the Rebellion ; most of the press, and the.! Continued, peaceable Reform meetings tapered off in October, to be replaced by instances of men drilling for.! To cool things off but the French-Canadians were treated better than the english side, for. The minimum capital needed to be FitzGibbon banks - including the advocate ``. Initial portion of the British colonial government in 1837 a supportive Upper Canadian Elite, 1837-1840 '' border a. A new user, so sorry if this comment is bad form ; however, it 's just a of... The death: Sir Francis rode up and, having contributed nothing thus far, decided to the! Administration: Executive Councillors needed to be waged in this province is between Monarchy a. To Capitalism in the meantime, Mackenzie intercepted the mail stage, allegedly to interrupt.! Of experienced military Colonel van Egmond had yet to appear meeting appointed Hughes Samuel... Paternalism and Politics: Sir Francis Bond Head was recalled in late 1837 and 1838 as a Borderland:... By instances of men drilling for battle did not no single cause for the in. Being pardoned in open combat, cannon balls are more of a sophisticated political movement copied! - including the advocate of `` responsible government, which was eventually achieved in 1830s. Revolt in Lower Canada, '', Robert Baldwin arrangement, main column then reserves by.