Even more influential has been John Dingell of Detroit, who was first elected to Congress in 1955 and served until 2015 (with the second longest tenure on record). Polish Americans lobbied against the houses, but their political sway was ineffective. Through his wife's affiliation, he became a leading member of the Polish branch of the Women's Christian Temperance Union, and preached against alcohol in Ohio, Wisconsin, and Illinois to prohibition-camps. On January 18, 1944, Russian diplomat Vyacheslav Molotov met with American ambassador Harriman, saying Poland needed a regime change and Krzycki, Orlemanski, and Lange would be excellent candidates for leadership in Poland. Polish characters tend to be brutish and ignorant, and are frequently the butt of jokes in the pecking order of the show.  Ronald Reagan told Polish jokes multiple times during his presidential campaign in 1980 and during his presidency. Of the three partitions, the Russian one contained the most middle-class Polish workers, and the number of industrial workers overall between 1864 and 1890 increased from 80,000 to 150,000. Whereas over 60% of Italian Americans reported eating Italian food at least once a week, less than 10% of Polish Americans ate Polish food once a week. Historians divide Polish American immigration into three "waves", the largest from 1870 to 1914, a second after World War II, and a third after Poland's independence in 1989. The judge ruled that the statute did not extend beyond "race" and the employment discrimination suit was dismissed because he was therefore not part of a protected class.  With little tolerance for learning and appreciating Polish last names, Americans viewed Poles who refused to change their names as unassimilable greenhorns. They contributed very significantly to the survival of the first English colony at Jamestown. ", Polish children in Austrian Galicia were largely uneducated; by 1900, 52 percent of all male and 59 percent of all female Galicians over six years of age were illiterates. Folklorist Mac E. Barrick observed that TV comedians were reluctant to tell ethnic jokes until Spiro Agnew's "polack jokes" in 1968, pointing to an early Polish joke told by comedian Bob Hope in 1968, referencing politicians. From 1875 to 1914, the number of Polish nuns increased sixfold in Galicia; at the same time, German Poland had a less marked increase and in Russian Poland it decreased. World War I motivated Polish-Americans to contribute to the cause of defeating the Germans, freeing their homeland, and fighting for their new home. Many of these newly arrived immigrants settled in the town of Wilno, Ontario, which today is recognized as the oldest Polish settlement in Canada. The public image of the Polish suffering in an economically and politically backward state hurt the Soviets' image abroad; to change public perception, the Soviets granted amnesty to several Polish prisoners and gave a one-time economic stimulus to boost the Polish economy.  On October 4, 2014, lawyers for Michael Jagodzinski, a mining foreman in West Virginia, announced a lawsuit against his former employer, Rhino Eastern, for discrimination based on national origin. Polish Americans had been enthusiastic enlistees in the U.S. military in 1941. The committeemen who ran and handled funds for the fraternal organizations agreed to have Catholic bishops appoint priests and claim property rights to their churches, but wanted to keep their power over church decisions. , A small steady immigration for Poland has taken place since 1939. One of them was a doctor of medicine and a soldier, Felix Wierzbicki, a veteran of the November Uprising, who, in 1849, published the first English-language book printed in California, California as it is, and as it may be. The desensitization that was caused by the hateful language in All in the Family created a mainstream acceptance of the jokes, and the word Polack.  In 1867, a showdown between a troupe of armed cowboys and the Polish community neared a deadly confrontation; Polish priests requested the Union Army to protect them, and a stationed Army helped keep them safe, registered to vote in elections, and free from religious intolerance. Kościuszko was a professional military officer who served in the Continental Army in 1776 and was instrumental in the victories at the Battle of Saratoga and West Point. These immigrants settled in New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Pittsburgh and the coal-mining towns of eastern Pennsylvania. The KKK led a similar anti foreigner event in Lilly, Pennsylvania in 1924, which had a significant number of Poles. Among the most famous immigrants from partitioned Poland at this time was Marcella Sembrich. The first home built by a Pole is the John Gawlik House, constructed 1858.  Starting in 1896, Michał Kruszka began a campaign to introduce Polish language curricula into Milwaukee public schools. Millions of immigrants were able to make a life for themselves in America during this time period, as the boom in industrialization created a need for laborers and highly-concentrated settlement areas sprung up across the country. In more rural areas, including the Alleghenies, Polish was widely spoken in coal mines. The PAC traveled to Paris in 1946 to stop the United States Secretary of State, James F. Byrnes, from making further agreements with Germany. Leo Krzycki, a Socialist leader known as a "torrential orator", was hired by different trade unions such as the Congress of Industrial Organizations to educate and agitate American workers in both English and Polish during the 1910s to the 1930s. The most prominent were the Polish Roman Catholic Union founded in 1873, the PNA (1880) and the gymnastic Polish Falcons (1887). Thomas Tarapacki theorized that the prominence and high visibility of Polish Americans in sports during the postwar era contributed to the Polish jokes of the 1960s and 70s. A leading Pole in the Temperance movement in the United States was Colonel John Sobieski, a lineal descendant of Polish King John III Sobieski, who served as a Union general in the American Civil War. Lange had great influence among Detroit Poles, arguing that Poland could return to its "democratic" roots by ceding territories on the Curzon Line to the Belarusians and Ukrainians, and distributing farmland to the peasants. The PNCC developed an active mission in Poland following World War I. Poles had even higher crop yields than the local Americans because of their labor-intensive efforts and willingness to try lands previously disregarded as worthless. In 1863–1864, the Imperial Russian Army suppressed the January Uprising, a large scale insurrection in the Russian partition of the former territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. His appointment was the result of growing pressure placed on the Illinois Archdiochese by Polish Americans eager to have a bishop of their own background. By 1609, however, Polish immigrants do appear in the annals of Jamestown, having been recruited by the colony as skilled craftsmen to create products for export. O'Hara invoked the Council of Baltimore saying that laypeople had no right to create and own their own church without ceding to the Roman Catholic diocese. Sobieski and the predominantly Protestant Christian Temperance groups never made great in-roads into the Polish community. During the War, Poles attempted to seek refuge in the United States, and some were allowed in. Every year I have come to Vilna and every time the chief of police comes to me with the same paper to sign, and every time I have to sign the promise that I will not sing in Polish. ", In 1895 government inspectors found a child working at a dangerous machine. Immigration from Europe was cut severely in 1911, and the quota for Polish immigrants was shrunk drastically. At the close of the war, America occupied West Germany and relations with the Eastern bloc became increasingly difficult because of Soviet domination. The lands were originally dark black swamps, and the settlers succeeded in draining the land for use as fruit orchards. Bush's announcement was politically risky because it promised trade and financial credit during a tight U.S. budget, and for placing the White House, and not the State Department, as the key decision maker on foreign diplomacy. The Ford Motor Company used Black strikebreakers in 1939 and 1940 to counter strikes by the United Auto Workers, which had a predominantly Polish-American membership. Polish immigrants were said to embody "immigrant Puritanism", demonstrating economic puritanism better than the original New Englanders. The Polish community was disgusted by the lack of justice it faced in Detroit, and enmity towards blacks grew during the 1960s and 1970s. Polish parishioners requested repeatedly to partake in church affairs; they were turned down and the bishop repudiated their "disobedience". However, working-class Polish Americans remained loyal to the Democratic party in the face of a Republican landslide that year. He advertised jobs in Gdansk, promising jobs for laborers at a salary of $7.25 a week (the average wage at his mill was $11.75 for Americans), and a free ship ride to the United States. Polish Americans were seen as bigoted and racist towards Blacks during the 1960s, as an increasing number of southern Blacks ran into conflict with Poles inside urban cities such as Detroit and Chicago. He cited instances where Polish farmers called their landlords massa, denoting a subordinate position on level with slavery, and, when asking a woman why she left Poland, she replied 'Mudder haf much childs and 'Nough not to eat all". , Galician Poles experienced among the most difficult situations in their homeland. The Polish couple had informed Mayor Arlie Sinks and Police chief Mun Owens beforehand that they were throwing a wedding and wanted to ensure protection; they did not know that Sinks and Owens themselves were Klansmen. Few European immigrants were deported, and at its height in 1911, only 253 of over 300,000 European women were deported for "prostitution. The Silesians held a millennial celebration for the Christianization of Poland in 966, and were presented a mosaic of the Black Madonna of Częstochowa by President Lyndon B.  Many people, according to linguist John M. Lipski, "are convinced that all Polish names end in -ski and contain difficult consonant clusters. It is said that Sandusky, Ohio, was named after him. Polish pride reached a height unseen by generations of Polish Americans. Among Poles of single ancestry, about 90% report living in a mixed-ethnic neighborhood, usually with other white ethnics. By 1910, Buffalo was home to approximately 70,000 Polish-Americans, about one-sixth of the city's population. Orlemanski founded the Kosciusko League in Detroit in 1943 to promote American-Soviet friendship. Practically every issue of the Polish American papers reminds us that we are in a new glorious age. Polish foremen were used to manage and supervise the workers. Swedish emigration to the United States had reached new heights in 1896, and it was in this year that the Vasa Order of America, a Swedish American fraternal organization, was founded to help immigrants, who often lacked an adequate network of social services.Swedish Americans usually came through New York City and subsequently settled in the upper Midwest.  Into the 1960s Polonia as a whole continued to vote solidly for the liberal New Deal Coalition and for local Democratic party organization candidates. In 1932 about 300,000 Polish Americans were enrolled in over 600 Polish grade schools in the United States. It broke free with American support in 1989. Unlike most earlier immigrants to America, they did not want to farm, which implied a permanence that did not figure in their plans. Lucyan Bójnowski wrote in the 1920s, "In a few decades, unless immigration from Poland is upheld, Polish American life will disappear, and we shall be like a branch cut off from its trunk.". In Poland, Davis assessed that, "the U.S. occupies such an exaggerated place of honor in the minds of most Poles that it goes beyond rational description." As per the Swamplands Act of 1850, the lands were legally conferred to pioneering settlers who could make use of these territories. Immigration from Poland was primarily conducted at Ellis Island, New York, although some people entered via Castle Garden and to a lesser extent, in Baltimore. Substantial research and sociological works such as The Polish Peasant in Europe and America found that many Polish immigrants shared a common objective of someday owning land in the U.S. or back in Poland.  In the 1931 story Heirs by Cornelia James Cannon, Poles are recognized as occupying a higher economic space than the protagonist Marilla. His efforts were panned as anti-religious, and thwarted by Catholic and Polish leaders.  Historically, Poles took great pride in their communities; in a 1912 survey of Chicago, in the black section, 26% of the homes were in good repair while 71% of the Polish homes were; by contrast, only 54% of the ethnically mixed stockyards district were in good repair.  Polish laborers were encouraged to migrate for work in the iron-foundries of Piotrków Trybunalski and migrants were highly desired in Siberian towns. Polish American priests created several of their own seminaries and universities, and founded St. Stanislaus College in 1890. , Leon Czolgosz, a Polish American born in Alpena, Michigan, changed American history in 1901 by assassinating U.S. President William McKinley.  During the time, Brenham was popularly known as the "Capital of Texas Polonia" because of its large Polish population. Their strike was the first labor protest in the New World. The Milwaukee Sentinel posted on September 11, 1901 an editorial noting that Czolgosz was an anarchist acting alone, without any ties to the Polish people: Czolgosz is not a Pole. Overall, around 2.2 million Poles and Polish subjects immigrated into the United States, between 1820 and 1914, chiefly after national insurgencies and famine. Texas blacks, referred to Poles as "'dem white niggahs' whom they hold in undisguised contempt" were apparently stunned by their high literacy rates, according to Daniels..  Several Polish immigrants were arrested for questioning in the police investigation, but police found that he acted independently. When a church was to be built, devout Poles funded their construction with absolute devotion. , Polish (and Italian) immigrants demonstrated high fecundity in the United States, and in a U.S. Congress report in 1911, Poles were noted as having the single highest birth rate.  Anti-Slavic legislation cut Polish immigration from 1921 to World War II, but opened up after World War II to include many displaced persons from the Holocaust. The United States Steel Corporation slowly eliminated its 7-day work weeks, down from 30% in 1910 to 15% in 1912. In 1886, Otto von Bismarck gave a speech to the Lower House of the Prussian Parliament defending his policies of anti-polonism, and warning of the ominous position Silesia was in with over 1 million Poles who could fight Germany "within twenty four hour notice". The Polish National Alliance (PNA) newspaper, Zgoda, warned in 1900, "The Pole is not free to Americanize" because Poland's religion, language and nationality had been "partially torn away by the enemies". A railroad system connecting Poland began reaching West Galicia from 1860 to 1900, and railroad tickets cost roughly half a farmhand's salary at the time. When Poles arrived in America, they settled in pockets across the industrial Midwest and the cities of the Northeast. Polish Americans eschewed intellectualism and pursued money through hard work and thrift. In a report by the Commissioner General of Immigration in 1914, the Commissioner gave a case-in-point where a young girl from Poland nearly landed an American man a Federal sentence for criminal trafficking after telling immigration officials an "appalling revelation of importation for immoral purposes". Clement J. Zablocki of Milwaukee served 1949–83, and became chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee from 1977 until his death in 1983; although liberal on domestic issues, he was a hawk regarding the Vietnam War. It is a cancer eating into the breast of society at large. People called them the za chlebem, or ‘for bread’ immigrants, because most had neither money nor land. The first night I sang at Vilna I was wild to sing in Polish. "Men depart by boat to the water where they stay one to two weeks. Following the War, many Poles escaped Soviet oppression by fleeing to sympathetic Western nations such as the United Kingdom, France, and the United States.  Polish immigrant Charles Kraitsir blamed Secretary of Treasury Albert Gallatin, who he said was intercepting letters addressed to the Polish Committee and took them himself, and was making statements on their behalf, without their input. Photographer Lewis Hine spoke with one foreman, who recruited Poles from Baltimore, who said, "I tell you, I have to lie to employees.  Polish Americans were personally affected by the War because they heard reports of Poles being used as soldiers for both the Allied and Central Powers, and Polish newspapers confirmed fatalities for many families. Many came to Buffalo to work in the city's thriving iron foundries, as well as its textile industry. In Detroit alone, over 3,000 of the areas' 300,000 Polish Americans changed their names every year during the 1960s. Aloysius Mazewski of the Polish American Congress felt that Poles were overlooked by the eminent domain and corporate personhood changes to U.S. law, arguing for a change in laws so that "groups as well as individuals" could launch anti-defamation lawsuits and confront civil rights charges. Polish exiles originally sought refuge in England, but lacking support, sought peace in America. As in other cities, Polish-Americans congregated around Catholic churches such as Buffalo's St. Stanislaus Kostka Church, built by early settlers in the 1870s. A general pattern emerged whereby laymen joined a city and united with other Poles to collect funds and develop representative leaders. In preparation for World War I, the Polish government asked for donations using appeals on behalf of the safety of their loved ones back home, as well as promises of a good high status back in Poland when they returned home. Peasants were disallowed from trading, and typically would have to sell their livestock to the nobility, who in turn would function as middlemen in economic life. , By 1967, there were nine Polish Americans in Congress including four from the Chicago area. Foreign-born individuals and their American-born children constituted a majority in America’s big cities. By 1894, four splitters were getting out 1,200 cattle in ten hours, or 30 cattle per man per hour. They differed from the first wave in that they did not want to, and often could not, return to Poland. They saved money from small paychecks to build a new church in the Roman Catholic parish, and were offended when the church sent an Irish bishop, Monsignor O'Hara, to lead services. 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