It is the third oldest church in the city, next to the Armenian and the Old Mission Church. The British Joint Stock Company, as it was known earlier, was founded by John Watts and George White for trade with Asian nations in the south and south-east. Secondary School. Log in. Also at this time, nobles such as Jagat Seth, Mir Jafar, Rai Durlav, Omichand and Rajballav were plotting against Siraj ud-Daula (a principal reason being the Nawab's arrogance, well attested to in contemporary sources) and they invited Clive to take part in their plans. Shaista Khan went after them in Dhaka, captured them and put them behind bars. There were three large villages along the east bank of the river Ganges, named, Sutanuti, Gobindapur and Kalikata. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. British agriculture did not fare well during the period either. Why did Calcutta rise under British This question has not been answered yet! The British Empire is remembered for its extensive, long-lasting and far-reaching imperial activities that ushered in an era of globalisation and connectivity. Impact of British Rule on India: Economic, Social and Cultural (1757-1857) SOCIAL SCIENCE Notes viewed the rise of the Sikhs as a potential threat. The river at this point was also wide and deep; the only disadvantage was that the marshes to the east and swamps within the area made the spot unhealthy. In the 16th century Britain began to establish overseas colonies. In 1717 the Mughal emperor Farrukh-Siyar granted the East India Company freedom of trade in return for a yearly payment of 3,000 rupees; this arrangement gave a great impetus to the growth of Calcutta. While not in a position to fight against the Governor's troops, two Company agents were sent to Dhaka to plead to the governor to allow them to return to Sutanuti and build a fort there. 1858: Beginning of the Raj. Ask your question. In anticipation of a war with the French, who had a trading settlement in Chandemagore, the British began to fortify Calcutta. On this day December 12 th, in 1911, India moves its capital from Calcutta to Delhi. The site was apparently carefully selected, being protected by the Hugli (Hooghly) River on the west, a creek to the north, and salt lakes to the east. Ask your question. Each had to be approved by the central government in New Delhi.. The earlier British struggle with the French in south India had been but a dress rehearsal. It is said that 123 Britons later died in the Black Hole of Calcutta after his victory, but recent evidence calls into question the numbers involved, and suggests that the Nawab himself was probably unaware of what transpired. The last British troops to leave India, the First Battalion of the Somerset Light Infantry, passed through the arcade of the Gateway of India in Bombay on 28 February 1948. (after London) and was aptly renamed "City of Palaces" and the Great Eastern Hotel was regarded as the "Jewel of the East". The three villages, in particular Kalikata, where Calcutta is located, came into the possession of the British East India Company in 1690 and some scholars like to date its beginnings as a major city from the construction of Fort William by the British in 1698, though this is debated (see the court ruling in "Name and origins" above). During 1638, Shah Jahan appointed his son Shah Shuja as the Subahdar of Bengal and Boughton visited the capital at Rajmahal where his services were again used to treat one of the ladies in the palace, and in return, the company was allowed to establish factories in Balasore, Odisha and Hooghly, Bengal in addition to Pipili, Odisha.. Kolkata grew rapidly in the 19th century to become the second city of the British Indian Empire. The agents of the East India Company first visited the provinces of Bengal and Bihar for trade during the period of Ibrahim Khan (ca 1617–1624), the Subahdar (Governor) of Bengal at the time of Mughal Emperor Jahangir. Ibrahim Khan again sent letter to Mr. Charnock explaining that he had requested for the special Firman from the Emperor and it would take a few months before it arrived, and in the meantime Mr. Charnock was welcome to settle in Bengal and the governor would pay him 80,000 rupees for the goods that have been destroyed by Shaista Khan's regime. At the same time, the Company were desperate to open negotiations with the Emperor after they left Bengal and Mr. Child was sent to him. The most accepted view is that it comes from the Hindu goddess Kali and the original name was KaliKshetra, "the place of Kali". The British took advantage of this and the First Anglo-Sikh War broke This movement is sometimes also called the Indian Mutiny, although recent evidence goes against using this name and suggests "The Revolt of 1857" as a better and less controversial choice. Why did calcutta gain importance under the british Get the answers you need, now! In 1698 the English obtained letters patent that granted them the privilege of purchasing the zamindari right (the right of revenue collection; in effect, the ownership) of the three villages. The servants of the company, who asked for permission to fortify their trading post, or factory, were given permission in general terms to defend themselves. * The story began when the Bengal Nawab, Siraj ud-Daulah, succeeded his maternal grandfather as Nawab of Bengal in April 1756 at the age of 23 and became angry with the British merchants of the East Indian Company. The fact that many of the Hindus in this latter group were linked to the local Congress organisation and dominated the mainstream nationalist movement in Bengal from Calcutta led to attempts to thwart Huq's activities and fed into the tragic decline in communal relations that savaged Calcutta in 1946 and 1947 (see Kenneth McPherson, "The Muslim Microcosm: the Muslims of Calcutta 1918–1935", Steiner, Wiesbaden, 1973). Kolkata, formerly known as Calcutta in English, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal and is located in eastern India on the east bank of the River Hooghly. After the death of Ranjit Singh in 1839, lawlessness prevailed in Punjab. In 1750, Calcutta had a population of 120,000. In 1727, on the order of King George I, a civil court was set up in the city. Barbados comes under British control. In this situation they considered that they would be extremely fortunate if they could hold their current position instead of their desires on Chittagong and for this matter they decided to ask forgiveness from the Emperor and requested to reinstate the previously obtained Firman. Calcutta's intellectual life received a great boost in 1784 with the foundation of the Asiatic Society of Bengal by Sir William Jones, with the encouragement of Warren Hastings, himself no mean Oriental scholar. , One of the most notorious incidents of the latter part of the century was the trial and execution of Nanda Kumar, who had been the governor of Hugging in 1756. Mr. Peacock, the chief of the factory in Patna, was imprisoned by the governor with the assumption that he was involved in the dispute. The next year, the company began developing the city as a Presidency City. The city has also experienced a growth in the manufacturing sector. It was often dependent upon a person’s job or status within the East India Company (EIC). Calcutta saw the establishment of several different Western-style higher education institutions this period, including Sanskrit College (1824), Calcutta Medical College (1835), University of Calcutta (1857), Surendranath College (1885) and the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (1887), India's first research institute. The moneylenders charge unimaginably high rates of interest from the farmers. The Mughal emperor granted East India Company freedom of trade in return for a yearly payment of 3,000 rupees. During the rule of the emperor Aurangzeb (reigned 1658–1707), the English East India Company was permitted to establish its base at Calcutta ( Kolkata ). So, in 1756, Siraj attacked Fort William in Calcutta with 30,000 troops. The area where the city is now located was originally inhabited by the people of three villages: Kalikata, Sutanuti and Gobindapur. Gandhi was part of … The British Joint Stock Company, as it was known earlier, was founded by John Watts and George White for trade with Asian nations in the south and south-east. It had fallen to 9,833,000 acres in 1930. Since 2000, Information Technology (IT) services revitalized the city's stagnant economy. Although it was not completed to the southern end of the settlement, it marked the city’s eastern boundary. By Ian Bremner Last updated 2011-02-17 After the territorial conquest of Bengal in 1757, the British East India Company pursued a monopoly on production and export of opium from India. 1612–1757, the East India Company set up "factories" (trading posts) in several locations in India, with the consent of the Moghul emperors or local rulers.Its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Holland and France. Answer: This irritated the new Nawab of Bengal, Siraj Ud Daulah, who viewed it as a threat to his sovereignty. The East India Company chose the place for a trade settlement. Gobindapore was cleared of its forests, and the new Fort William was built on its present site, overlooking the Hugli at Calcutta, where it became the symbol of British military ascendancy. In 1773 Bombay (now Mumbai) and Madras (now Chennai) became subordinate to the government at Fort William. His study of Sanskrit with Pandit Ramlochan at Nadiya led him to posit the existence of the Indo-European family of languages. Emperor Aurangzeb wanted to reconcile with the Company to ensure uninterrupted voyage of pilgrims to Mecca and asked his governors to make terms with them. By this time Aurangzeb was camping at Visapur and was much aware of the fact that he was losing revenues from the Company trade and the Company ships could cause him much trouble by stopping the pilgrimage to Mecca since they controlled the sea-route. The city was a colonial city developed by the British East India Company and then by the British Empire. Upon hearing the news of Shaista Khan's plan, Mr. Charnock determined that it was no longer safe to remain in Hooghly and decided to move downstream to Sutanuti, a small hamlet on the banks of the river Hooghly on 20 December 1686. Each had to be approved by the central government in New Delhi.. Construction of the building, modelled on St Martin-in-the-Fields of London, started in 1784, with Rs 30,000 raised through a public lottery, and was completed in 1787. From 1912 to India's Independence in 1947, it was the capital of all of Bengal.  Five years after this incident, in 1780, relations between Warren Hastings and Philip Francis deteriorated to such an extent that the two fought a duel in the grounds of Belvedere (now the National Library) on the road to the suburb of Alipore. The first factory was established in Surat in 1620 and later in Agra, and agents were further sent from these places to the eastern provinces to examine the possibility of opening factories there. Kolkata was the capital of the British Indian empire until 1911 when the capital was relocated to Delhi. In fact, within three months about half of Charnock's soldiers died and the remaining half were ready to be hospitalized.  After the death of his English wife, Charlotte, (who is buried in Park Street Cemetery) Hickey married a Bengali girl called Jemdanee, who died in childbirth in 1796, prompting him to write in his journal that "Thus did I lose as gentle and affectionately attached a girl as ever man was blessed with".. At the time when Nicholson was ordered to proceed to Chittagong, Sir John Child was ordered to withdraw the company's establishment from Bombay, commence hostilities on the western coast, blockade Mughal harbors and attack their ships anywhere to be found. The Elgin Road residence of Subhas Chandra Bose in Calcutta was the place from where he escaped the British to reach Germany during the Second World War. Calcutta also had an indirect but important influence on the battles of the Carnatic Wars. The British Raj (/ r ɑː dʒ /; from rāj, literally, "rule" in Sanskrit and Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown on the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. This was accompanied by the development of a culture that fused European philosophies with Indian tradition. The farmer misunderstood due to language problems and thought that he was referring as to when he harvested his paddy. Join now. Following similar moves elsewhere in the country, the state government changed the city's official name from Calcutta to Kolkata in 2001. Join now. There were just over 11 million acres in cultivation in 1914 (in England and Wales). In fact, the U.S Consulate in Calcutta is the U.S. Department of State's second-oldest consulate and dates from 19 November 1792.. The first native president of the Indian National Congress was Sir Womesh Chunder Bonnerjee and he was also the first Congress president to advocate self-rule by Indians, Sir Surendra Nath Banerjea (referred to by the British as "Surrender Not") were early eminent Calcuttans, who provoked and influenced nationalist thinking in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. During this time a local disturbance occurred when the zamindar in Bihar attacked the governor of Bihar. He proudly replied ", This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 03:27. The servants of the company, under the company’s flag, carried on a duty-free private trade. About the same time, the British Parliament began regulating the East India Company through successive India Acts , bringing Bengal under the indirect control of the British government. The Calcutta High Court ruled in 2003 that Job Charnock, the Englishman generally believed to be the founder of the Calcutta, is not the founder of the city and that hence Kolkata has no birthday. And, for good measure, he got parliamentary approval to bestow the new title ‘Empress of India’ upon Queen Victoria in 1876. The bedrock of the Mughal empire was laid in 1526 by Zahiruddin Babur. Among early nationalist leaders, the most prominent were Sri Aurobindo, Indira devi Chaudhurani, Bipin Chandra Pal. The British thus wanted to bring the Sikhs under control. Tensions were largely due to the fact that both grou… One thousand British settlers evacuated, including the military commanders, leaving one hundred or so behind. Log in. ) Revolutionary organisations like the Jugantar and the Anushilan Samiti were formed with the goal of using force against the British rulers. History. 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However, the boundaries of the three villages gradually became less distinct, and before the battle of Plassey, the city could be divided into four different sub-areas: European Kolkata (Dihi Kolkata); a residential village with some sacred spots (Gobindapur); a traditional Indian market (Bazar Kalikata or Burrabazar); and a riverine mart concentrating on cloth trade (Sutanati). 1. Whilst this matter was still awaiting investigation Nanda Kumar was indicted for forgery of a deed, condemned and executed. Many scholars in India and the West agree today that the British power depended upon excellent cooperation with Indian elites and that the British rule did not change the highly divisive caste … The British East India Company was formed in 1599 under a charter granted by Queen Elizabeth in 1600. Charnock arrived at Uluberia, started making a dock there, however soon started to dislike the place and wanted to return to Sutanuti. "Last Days of the Rickshaw. This common pairing of the goddess Kali standing on her husband, the god Shiva, illustrates the importance Tantra places on feminine creative power (shakti).Shiva is a shava (corpse) without the feminine presence of Shakti.. Then he was ordered to proceed to Dhaka. From there much of it was smuggled to Canton in China by foreign traders, eventually leading to the First Opium War (1839–1842). But then war broke out between rival Indian princes, and the French interfere making the Indians trade with France (and not Britain). (Ironically, this is the same city that has historically been a strong base of Indian communism: West Bengal was ruled by the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M)) dominated Left Front for nearly three decades — the world's longest-running democratically elected communist government. These were taken up with enthusiasm by Hastings' rivals on the Governor General's Council, led by Philip Francis. 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