School attendance is almost 2. https://uidai.gov.in/images/state-wise-aadhaar-saturation.pdf [150], The state's official languages are Bengali and English;[4] [97] The high-altitude forests of Singalila National Park shelter barking deer, red panda, chinkara, takin, serow, pangolin, minivet and kalij pheasants. There are a small number of ethnic minorities primarily in the state capital, including : Chinese, Tamils, Maharashtrians, Odias, Assamese, Malayalis, Gujaratis, Anglo-Indians, Armenians, Jews, Punjabis and Parsis. [63][64][65] The state has shown improvement regarding bandhs (strikes)[66][67][68] and educational infrastructure. more than 1.1 million are others and not stated religion. The state's main ethnic group are the Bengalis, with the Bengali Hindus forming the demographic majority. [115] Per-capita NSDP growth rate at current prices varied from 9.4% in 2010–2011 to a high of 16.15% in 2013–2014. Rice, potato, jute, sugarcane and wheat are the state's top five crops. Pandals are erected in various cities, towns, and villages throughout West Bengal. Hinduism is the largest religious tradition in the Indian state of West Bengal with approximately 70.54% of the population identifying themselves as Hindus (as of 2011). Right now, the population growth of West Bengal is 7.48% every year and it is likewise beating different states regarding developing Muslim population. Both West Bengal and Bangladesh are parts of historical and geographic region of Bengal. On this day, processions begin at the various Buddhist monasteries, or gumpas, and congregate at the Chowrasta (Darjeeling) Mall. The state capital is Kolkata, the third-largest metropolis, and seventh largest city by population in India. In 2001, 80,221,171 people lived in West Bengal. The Farakka barrage over the Ganges feeds the Hooghly branch of the river by a feeder canal. The legislature, the West Bengal Legislative Assembly, consists of elected members and special office bearers such as the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, who are elected by the members. Post independence, West Bengal's economy is based on agricultural production and small and medium-sized enterprises. West Bengal is a state in India located along the Bay of Bengal. [12] The Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971 resulted in an influx of millions of refugees to West Bengal, causing significant strains on its infrastructure. Mosques, madrasas and khanqahs were built throughout these stages. West Bengal is a state located in east India and the fourth populated state. Only 14% of women aged 15–49 years in West Bengal have completed 12 or more years of schooling, compared with 22% of men. Part of the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, it borders Bangladesh in the east, and Nepal and Bhutan in the north. . The leader of the party or coalition with a majority in the Legislative Assembly is appointed as the Chief Minister by the Governor. West Bengal includes the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region, the Ganges delta, the Rarh region and the coastal Sundarbans. The Rarh region intervenes between the Ganges delta in the east and the western plateau and high lands. [90], West Bengal is governed through a parliamentary system of representative democracy, a feature the state shares with other Indian states. [115] The state's per capita income has lagged the all India average for over two decades. [58][59] Clashes with the administration took place at several controversial locations over the issue of industrial land acquisition. In the 19th and 20th centuries, Bengali literature was modernised in the works of authors such as Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, whose works marked a departure from the traditional verse-oriented writings prevalent in that period;[170] Michael Madhusudan Dutt, a pioneer in Bengali drama who introduced the use of blank verse;[171] and Rabindranath Tagore, who reshaped Bengali literature and music. 2) Kayastha are generic West Bengalis. Hindi in the Devanagari script is the official language of Bihar and Sanskrit is a mandatory subject at the primary and secondary education. Just like Durga Puja, Christmas in Kolkata is an occasion when all communities and people of every religion take part. [118]:20 Kolkata is the headquarters of three zones of the Indian Railways—Eastern Railway and South Eastern Railway and the Kolkata Metro, which is the newly formed 17th zone of the Indian Railways. Following the West Bengal State Assembly Election in 2011, the All India Trinamool Congress and Indian National Congress coalition under Mamata Banerjee of the All India Trinamool Congress was elected to power with 225 seats in the legislature. [101], Politics in Bengal is dominated by the All India Trinamool Congress, Bharatiya Janata Party, Congress, and the Left Front alliance (led by the Communist Party of India (Marxist) or CPI(M)). Shyama Sangeet is a genre of devotional songs, praising the Hindu goddess Kali;[182] kirtan is devotional group songs dedicated to the god Krishna. [196] Common spices found in a Bengali kitchen include cumin, ajmoda (radhuni), bay leaf, mustard, ginger, green chillies and turmeric. The detail analysis of Population Census 2011 published by Govt. Abanindranath Tagore, called the father of modern Indian art, started the Bengal School of Art, one of whose goals was to promote the development of styles of art outside the European realist tradition that had been taught in art colleges under the British colonial administration. Janet Levy in her article has presented several facts in favor of this claim, she wrote that “At the time of Partition, the population of Muslims in West Bengal, which was part of India, was slightly more than 12% whereas Hindus in East Bengal who went to Pakistan Today the population of Muslims in West Bengal has increased to 27 percent, in some districts it has gone up to 63 percent, while on the … Refugee resettlement and related issues continued to play a significant role in the politics and socio-economic condition of the state. [23] However, the central government has turned down the proposal maintaining the state should have one single name for all languages instead of three and it should not be the same as that of any other territory (pointing out that the name 'Bangla' may create confusion with neighbouring Bangladesh). There are five factors which work in favour of Mamata in West Bengal: 1. Since independence in 1947, Durga Puja has slowly changed into more of a glamorous carnival than a religious festival. Some prominent financial dailies such as: The Economic Times, Financial Express, Business Line and Business Standard are widely circulated. [199][200], Bengali women commonly wear the sari, often distinctly designed according to local cultural customs. West Bengal, unlike most other states of India, is noted for its passion and patronage of football. 0. Blocks consists of panchayats (village councils) and town municipalities. The population of all cities and towns in the State of West Bengal by census years. Of the 30 per cent, however, at least 24 per cent are Bengali-speaking Muslims. [111], As of 2015[update], West Bengal has the sixth-highest GSDP in India. [94] The alluvial soil of the Gangetic plain, combined with favourable rainfall, makes this region especially fertile. Native Magahi speakers are found in Malda district. [45] The Bengal Presidency was established in 1765; it later incorporated all British-controlled territory north of the Central Provinces (now Madhya Pradesh), from the mouths of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra to the Himalayas and the Punjab. [117] Agriculture is the leading economic sector in West Bengal. [4] In 2012, the state government passed a bill granting additional official status to Hindi, Odia, Punjabi, Santali and Urdu in areas where speakers exceed 10% of the population. In the same year, plans for a 300 billion Jindal Steel project was mothballed. West Bengal (/bɛnˈɡɔːl/) is a state in the eastern region of India along the Bay of Bengal. In rural regions of West Bengal state, female sex ratio per 1000 males was 953 while same for the child (0-6 age) was 959 girls per 1000 boys. [214][215] Kolkata has played a pioneering role in the development of the modern education system in India. In urban areas, many women and men wear western attire. [234], Cricket and association football are popular sports in the state. Beginning in the mid-2000s, armed activists conducted minor terrorist attacks in some parts of the state. 0. The vast majority of Hindus in West Bengal are Bengali Hindusnumbering around 5.4 crore and comprising 59% of the state population, but a notable section of non-Bengali Hindus also exist, particularly among Marwaris, Biharis… With over 91 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous state and the fourteenth-largest state by area in India. [223], There are several research institutes in Kolkata. [139] There is passenger service to Port Blair on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. [96] Above an elevation of 1,000 metres (3,300 ft), the forest becomes predominantly subtropical. The population development of the State of West Bengal by census years. It is the largest stadium in India by seating capacity. [147] Surjapuri, a language considered to be a mix of Maithili and Bengali, is spoken across northern parts of the state. [60][61] This became a decisive reason behind the defeat of the ruling Left Front government in the 2011 assembly election. [82] Damodar, another tributary of the Ganges and once known as the "Sorrow of Bengal" (due to its frequent floods), has several dams under the Damodar Valley Project. The region was a hotbed of the Indian independence movement and has remained one of India's great artistic and intellectual centres. The highest daytime temperatures range from 38 °C (100 °F) to 45 °C (113 °F). The Bose Institute, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute Durgapur, Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibers, National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology, Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, National Institute of Biomedical Genomics (NIBMG), Kalyani, and the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre are the most prominent. The eastern part went to the Dominion of Pakistan as a province called East Bengal (later renamed East Pakistan in 1956), becoming the independent nation of Bangladesh in 1971. [146] Marwari, Maithili and Bhojpuri speakers are scattered throughout the state; various indigenous ethnic Buddhist communities such as the Sherpas, Bhutias, Lepchas, Tamangs, Yolmos and ethnic Tibetans can be found in the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region. Sweets such as narkol-naru, til-naru, moa and payesh are prepared during festivals such as Lakshmi puja. Politically, Bengal is currently divided between Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.In the past it included areas of the neighbouring states of Bihar, Odisha, Assam and Tripura. Total population of rural areas of West Bengal state was 62,183,113. People such as Ram Mohan Roy, David Hare, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Alexander Duff and William Carey played leading roles in setting up modern schools and colleges in the city. [188][189][190], There are significant examples of fine arts in Bengal from earlier times, including the terracotta art of Hindu temples and the Kalighat paintings. The Vidyasagar College was established in 1872 and was the first purely Indian-run private college in India. In August 2016 the West Bengal Legislative Assembly passed another resolution to change the name of West Bengal to "Bengal" in English and "Bangla" in Bengali. [185], West Bengali films are shot mostly in studios in the Kolkata neighbourhood of Tollygunge; the name "Tollywood" (similar to Hollywood and Bollywood) is derived from that name. [79] The narrow Terai region separates the hills from the North Bengal plains, which in turn transitions into the Ganges delta towards the south. [53], When India gained independence in 1947, Bengal was partitioned along religious lines. Eden Gardens was one of only two 100,000-seat cricket stadiums in the world;[240] renovations before the 2011 Cricket World Cup reduced the capacity to 66,000. In 1971, the civil war in the erstwhile East Pakistan, nearly 10 million Bangladeshis — mostly Hindu — came into West Bengal to escape the atrocities like murder, rape and forced conversion to Islam. Watch: Hindu Families In West Bengal Flee Their Homes After Mosques Call For Non-Muslims To Be Killed by Swarajya Staff - May 15, 2019 12:00 PM … [28] Bengal had overseas trade relations with Suvarnabhumi (Burma, Lower Thailand, the Lower Malay Peninsula and Sumatra). [13][14] There is moderate unemployment. By Aritra Singha On Dec 2, 2020. TMC strategists later warned Mamata about the risk of alienating Bengal’s 15 million non-Bengali Hindu population. Every district has weaving clusters, which are home to artisan communities, each specialising in specific varieties of handloom weaving. Prajna Bhavan, housing the School of Mathematical Sciences and School of RKMVU. In Bengal, 71% of women aged 15–49 years and 81% of men aged 15–49 years are literate. The main seasons are summer, the rainy season, a short autumn and winter. That no could be a yes soon. The density of West Bengal state in the current decade is 2664 per sq mile. The Durgapur centre has established a number of industries in the areas of tea, sugar, chemicals and fertilisers. [37], Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty invaded some areas of Bengal between 1021 and 1023. [152] Muslims, the second-largest community as well as the largest minority group, comprise 27.01% of the total population,[153] Sikhism, Christianity, Buddhism and other religions make up the remainder. [118]:14 Tea is produced commercially in northern districts; the region is well known for Darjeeling and other high-quality teas. The state has 86% Bengalis and 14% non-Bengalis. Rice is the state's principal food crop. [233] Private FM stations are available only in cities like Kolkata, Siliguri, and Asansol. One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal is a mention by the Ancient Greeks around 100 BCE of a land named Gangaridai located at the mouths of the Ganges. . 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